How is a glass made? What’s the process of making glass
With the emergence of float glass technology, it is possible to produce flat, uniform and excellent glass in large quantities, and at the same time, the variety of deeply processed glass is becoming more and more abundant.
In addition to the commonly used height toughened glass, there are ground glass, dimming glass that pay attention to privacy protection, laminated glass and filament glass that enhance bulletproof safety performance.
In this article, we will mainly introduce the process of making glass, explain its characteristics, and specifically introduce how the glass is made.
1. How is the glass made
Glass is usually made of borosilicate glass, which is fired at a temperature of more than 600 degrees.
There are manual blowing, machine blowing, machine pressing;
Blowing steps are as follows
1: hang on silk;
2: blow the ball;
3: opening of skin;
4: liner opening back cover;
6: the back cover;
7: affix trademarks;
What is the process of making glass
1. Ingredients: according to the designed material list, weigh all kinds of raw materials and mix them evenly in a mixer.
The main raw materials of glass are: quartz sand, limestone, feldspar, soda, boric acid and so on.
2. Melting, the matched raw materials are heated at high temperature to form a uniform bubble-free glass liquid.
This is a very complex physical and chemical reaction process.
The melting of glass takes place in a melting kiln.
There are two main types of melting furnace: one is the crucible kiln, in which the glass is stored in the crucible and heated outside the crucible.
Small crucible kiln only put a crucible, large can be up to 20 crucible.
Crucible kiln is produced in interstitial mode. Now only optical glass and colored glass are produced in crucible kiln.
The other is pond kiln, in which the glass material is melted and heated by open fire on the surface of the glass liquid.
Most of the glass temperature of the melted in 1300 ~ 1600 ゜ c. most with flame heating, heating, also with a small amount of current is called the electric furnace.
Now, the tank kilns are continuously produced, the small tank kilns can be several meters, the large tank can be more than 400 meters 2.
3 forming, is to melt the liquid glass into a fixed shape of solid products.
Forming, which takes place within a range of temperatures, is a cooling process in which glass first changes from a viscous liquid state to a plastic state and then to a brittle solid state.
Forming methods can be divided into two categories: manual forming and mechanical forming.
And there was a
(1) blowing, with a nickel-chromium alloy blowing pipe, pick a group of glass in the mold while turning and blowing.
It is mainly used to form glass bubble, bottle, ball (with scratching lens), etc.
(2) pull, blow into a bubble, another worker with the top plate stick, two people blow while pulling is mainly used to make glass tubes or rods.
(3) suppress, pick a group of glass, cut with scissors to make it fall into the concave die, and then use a punch pressure.
It is mainly used for forming cups, plates, etc.(4) Free forming, after picking the material, use pliers, scissors, tweezers and other tools to directly make handicrafts.
Mechanical forming. Because manual forming has high labor intensity, high temperature and poor conditions, so, in addition to free forming, most of them have been replaced by mechanical forming.
Mechanical forming in addition to pressing, blowing, drawing, and
(1) Calendering method, used to produce thick plate glass, cut glass, metal wire glass, etc.
(2) casting method, the production of optical glass.
(3) Centrifugal casting method, used for the manufacture of large diameter glass tubes, utensils and large capacity reaction POTS.
This is done by injecting the glass melt into a high-speed rotating mold. The centrifugal force forces the glass to the wall of the mold and the rotation continues until the glass hardens.
(4) sintering method, used for the production of foam glass.
It is added in the glass powder foaming agent, heated in a metal mold with a cover, glass in the heating process to form a lot of closed bubbles, which is a good insulation, sound insulation material.
In addition, the plate glass is formed by vertical drawing, flat drawing and float.
Float method is to make glass flow floating on the surface of molten metal (tin) to form plate glass, its main advantages are high quality glass (smooth, smooth), pull speed, large output.
4. Annealing, glass undergoes drastic changes in temperature and shape during forming, which leaves thermal stress in the glass.
This thermal stress reduces the strength and thermal stability of glassware.
If it is cooled directly, it is likely to break spontaneously during the cooling process or later during storage, transportation and use (commonly known as the cold explosion of glass).
In order to clean up the cold explosion, glass products must be annealed after forming.
Annealing is the practice of holding or slowly cooling the glass over a range of temperatures for a period of time in order to clean or reduce the thermal stress in the glass to a allowable value.
In addition, some glassware can be hardened in order to increase its strength.
The principle of hardening is to create a compressive stress on the surface layer of the glass to increase its strength
3. Relevant concepts
Glass is amorphous inorganic non-metallic material, generally with a variety of inorganic minerals (such as quartz sand, borax, boric acid, barite, barium carbonate, limestone, feldspar, soda soda, etc.) as the main raw materials, and add a small amount of auxiliary raw materials made.
Its main components are silica and other oxides.
The chemical composition of ordinary glass is Na2SiO3, CaSiO3, SiO2 or Na2O·CaO·6SiO2, etc., the main component is silicate double salt, is a kind of irregular structure of amorphous solid.
Widely used in buildings, used for wind and light, belongs to the mixture.
Another mixed with some metal oxides or salts and show the color of colored glass, and through the physical or chemical method of toughened glass, etc.
Some clear plastics (such as polymethyl methacrylate) are sometimes referred to as agricultural system glass.
3.2 the forming
To take shape is to become a form, to form a stable situation.
As the novelty of the ideas in the making surprised him;
To form glass by arranging into a form or shape;
Medically having a normal stool formation;
In medicine, it refers to the preparation or organ for the correction of injury, plastic surgery, osteoplasty, etc.
Crucible is an important part of chemical instruments, it is melting and refining metal liquid and solid-liquid heating, reaction container, is to ensure the smooth chemical reaction basis.
Post time: Jan-11-2021